The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. NJ Women Elegant Closed Pointed Toe D'Orsay Dress Pumps High Heel Hollow Out Ankle Strap Suede Prom Party shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,NJ Women Elegant D'Orsay Sandals Soft Round Toe Block Mid Heel Ankle Lace Up Suede Dress Pumps Party shoesNJ Women Sexy Stiletto High Heels Gladiator Sandals Peep Toe Platform Hollow Out Party Pumps shoes with Back Zipper Rieker Womens Slipper, Ballerinas blue, 941859-5Btrada Women's Mid Calf Boots Platform Round Toe Wedges Heel Women Boots Thick Plush Fashion Zipper shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, NJ Women Pointed Toe Flats Ankle Strap Strappy Slip On Suede Ballet shoes with Back Zippersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Ellie 604-CIDNEY Women 6 Heel Sandal.BalaMasa Womens Solid Platform High-Heel Urethane Boots ABM12533We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,NJ Women Pointed Toe High Heel Slide Sandals Stilettos Slip On Dress shoes with StrapNJ Womens Pointed Toe Faux Suede D'Orsay Flats Ankle Strap Casual Dress shoes with ZipsRieker - Z766200 - Z766200Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointy Toe Stiletto Heel Applique Platform Handmade Sexy Pumps I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. NJ Women Strappy High Heel Wedding Sandals Slingback Lace Pumps Slip on Bridal shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. NJPU Women Sexy Platform Chunky High Heels Pumps Round Toe Slip on Leopard Evening Dress shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nancy Jayjii Formal shoes for Women Round Toe Slip-on Stiletto Genuine Leather Macaron Green 13and ASICS Women's Nitrofuze 2 Running-shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, B.O.C. Womens Heidi Open Toe Casual Platform Sandals, Grey, Size 6.0T-JULY Summer Sandals Women Sexy Gladiator Sandals Cross Strappy Peep Toe shoes Women High Heels Ankle Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). T-JULY Women's Dropship Knee-High Boots Winter Platform shoes Fur Warm Snow BootsPleaser Womens ADORE-700SK-02 RCA NW SandalsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? AnMengXinLing Ankle Boot Women Block High Heel Platform Genuine Leather Pointed Toe Back Zipper Dress Flower Chelsea BootiesT-JULY Woman Snow Boot Flock Women Mid Calf Boots Elegant Round Toe Med Height Increasing Zipper Winter Warm Soft Lady shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?ECCO shoes Women's Biom Street Fashion SneakersFengJingYuan Women's Boots, Chelsea Boots, high Heels, Serpentine Pointed shoes, and Winter, Martin Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Bugatti Women's 431668606969 Slip On TrainersElsa Wilcox Women Increased Height Casual Sports shoes with Cz Fashion High Top Round Toe Wedge Sneakers Platform ECCO shoes Women's Soft 1 Three Strap Fashion SneakersWomen's Booties Casual Martin Boots Flat Heel shoes Autumn WinterThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Adrianna Papell Women's Daisy Flat SandalSperry Women's Coil Ivy Leather Canvas Boat shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Altra AFW1838F Women's Duo Running shoes, Black Pink - 9 B(M) USConverse Mens Chuck Taylor All Star Ox Canvas Trainers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeWallhewb Woman Motorcycle High Boots Velvet Warm Autumn Winter Fur Snow Boots Front Zippers Fashion Lady Tall Snow Boots Girl Girl Leg Length Elegant Rubber Sole Leg Length Black 7.5 M US shoes6Cm Chunkly Heel Square Toe Bootie Women Pure color Bowknot Drawstring Dress shoes OL Court shoes EU Size 35-39.Musse & Cloud Womens Caty Slide SandalCotswold Womens Ladies Beacon Lace Up Hiking Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Jeffrey Campbell Womens Ravis-CHF FlatNike Women's Air Zoom Resistance Tennis shoes Beigetherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (YDN Women Comfort Open Toe Cross Strap Flat Sandals Slingback Faux Suede Low Heel Dress Slide Sandals).YDN Women Western Low Heels Stiletto Boots Pointy Toe Kitten Ankle Booties for OfficeYDN Women Open Toe High Heel Sandals Chunky Heels Pumps Ankle Straps Slingback Dress shoes However,JIEEME Ladies Lace-up Square Toe Square Heels Genuine Leather Boots Black Mid Heel Ankle Women BootsAilj Snow Boots, Ladies Outdoor Leather Fluff One Booties Non-Slip Warm Boots Winter Cotton Boots (4 colors) (color Brown, Size 37 EU 5 US 4 UK 23.5cm JP) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.YDN Women Patchwork Pointed Toe High Heel Slingback Sandals Slip on Pumps Stilettos shoes

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