The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AmoonyFashion Women's Open-Toe Zipper Pu Assorted color Low-Heels Sandals, BUTLS007246The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,AmoonyFashion Women's Buckle Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Pu Solid Sandals, BUTLT007555AmoonyFashion Women's PU Hook-and-Loop Split-Toe Low-Heels Solid Sandals Papillio Cleo Sandals in SilverRunning-sun Women Ankle Boots Rhinestones Crystal Boots High Heels shoes Woman Sexy Thin Heels Warm shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, AmoonyFashion Women's Lace-up Open-Toe Low-Heels Fabric Assorted color Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Womens Heeled Nightclub Party Cross Dressing Plus Size Peep Toe Slip on Pumps012PUMA Unisex Adults’ Basket Classic LFS Low-Top TrainersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,AmoonyFashion Women's Low-Heels Elastic PU Solid Split-Toe SandalsAmoonyFashion Women's Blend High-Heels Closed-Toe Solid Pumps-shoes Pumps-shoes,BUSDT004450T-JULY Cover Heels Platform Women Sandals Heels Women shoes Zipper Black Peep Toe Summer Party shoes Female MeshT-JULY Short Boots for Women Plush Fur Thick Sole Winter shoes Half Snow Girls Footwear 4 colors Size 34-43 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. AmoonyFashion Women's Buckle Closed-Toe Solid Kitten-Heels PU Sandals), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Very Fine Dance shoes 2707 (Competition Grade) 2.5 Heel), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Square High Heels Buckle Strap Woman Sandals Women shoesand DSOL Women's Latin Dance shoes DC6728T-6 Heel 1.5 Black). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, WeenFashion Women's Patent Leather High-Heels Pumps-shoes Pumps-shoes,AMGDX006923WeenFashion Women's Buckle Closed-Toe Low-Heels Patent Leather Solid Sandals, AMGLX010385during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). WeenFashion Women's Patent Leather Hook-and-Loop Open-Toe Kitten-Heels Sandals,AMGLX010651Webb Perkin Women Chunky High Heels Square Toe Short shoes Zipper Metal Decoration Boot Lady Ankle BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Sandals Slippers high-Heeled Sandals with a Sense of Words with Women's shoes (color White, Size 33)AllhqFashion Women's Open-Toe Buckle Pu Solid Kitten-Heels Sandals, FBULD015095And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Newton Running Women's Aha Ii Ankle-High shoesWelcometoo Ladies Autumn Winter Knight Sexy PU Leather Long Boots Big Size Over Knee Thigh High Boots Women shoes Warm Lining Botas New.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).So8ooa Lady Boots Women Winter Knee Long Boots Fringe High Heels shoes Fashion Leisure Elegant Cosy Wild Tight Super Quality Black Red for WomensRieker womens-Stiefelette zwei- mehrfarbig 991160-0 AllhqFashion Women's Pointed Closed Toe Sheepskin Spikes Stilettos Solid Pumps with Double BreastedDivaz Womens Ladies Dench Zip Up Reptile Skin Ankle BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Eric Carl Womens Casual Short Boot Side Zipper Platform Ankle BootSkechers Women's Skech-AIR Element-Cinema Sneaker, Light bluee, 7 M USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Ellie shoes Women's 709-Spectrum Platform SandalCamper Womens Right Nina K200387 Ballet Flat There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAllhqFashion Women's Pointed Closed Toe Sheepskin Spikes Stilettos Solid Pumps with FloriationKEEN Women's Sage Ankle Sandals.Women's Super High Heel shoes Platform Zipper Ankle Boots Stiletto Heel Party shoes for Fall WinterSpring Step Women's Ballerina shoes color Black Leather shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, T-JULY Woman Sandals Woman Office Ladies Square High Heel shoes Square Toe Sexy Summer shoes with Buckle Ankle StrapDelicious Women's Nora2 Tan Leatherette High Heel Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Cambridge Select Women's Round Toe Buckled Ankle Strap Low Wedge Ballet Flat).Cambridge Select Women's Gladiator Caged Cutout Open Toe Chunky Stacked Block Lace-up Mid Heel SandalKenneth Cole REACTION Womens Ava Great T-Strap Wedge Sandal Wedge Sandal However,Fheaven Block Low Heel Boots Spring Single shoes Women's Round Toe shoes Cut Out Booties Buckle Flat Sandals (6, Black)Uerescha LED shoes High Top Men Women Light Up shoes USB Charging Flame Flashing Sneakers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.T-JULY Women's Pumps Chunky High Heels Mules Office Lady's Shallow Slipper Square Toe Slip-on Party shoes with Buckle Strap

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