The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. JARLIF Women's Lightweight Jogging Training Running shoes Athletic Walking Tennis Sneakers US5.5-10The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,MUMUWU Men's British Brogue Oxfords shoes Lace Up Style Genuine Leather Business Formal Business Dress shoes (color Black, Size 7.5 D(M) US)Z.L.F shoes Classic Men's Modern shoes Smooth Upper PU Leather Lace Up Pointed Toe Breathable Lined Oxfords Leather shoes MOREMOO Men's Fashion Leather Driving shoes Casual Slip On Loafers Moccasin FlatsConverse Men's Star Street ll 148808Cgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, BND-SHOES,Men's Ankle Boots Casual Fashion High Top Round Toe Tie with Rubber Outsole Lace up Work shoes Durable,Stand Wear and Tear (color Black, Size 9 D(M) US)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nike Women's Zoom Condition Tr Ankle-High Fabric Training shoesDig dog bone Men's Fashion Ankle Boots Warm Velvet Casual Side Zipper Martin BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Steve Madden Mens Pasage OxfordsGiles Jones Mens Chelsea Boots Autumn Winter Comfort Breathable Brogue Ankle BootsDrew Women's Juniper White Floral Snake clogs-and-mules 6.5 MPUMA Mens Nrgy Neko Knit Sneaker I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Super frist Men's Lightweight Combat Boots Outdoor Work Water Resistant Military Tactical Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Frye Womens Lena Zip High Fashion Sneaker), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Converse Unisex Chuck Taylor All Star Hi Top Sneaker (10.5 B(M) US Women 8.5 D(M) US Men, Black)and shoes Modern Men's Leisure Oxfords Flat Heel Lace Up Genuine Leather Solid color shoes Leather shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Gola Women's Harrier 50 Leather White Pastel Pnk TrainersCofra Small Men's Work shoes, Blackduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). A1 FASHION GOODS Mens Real Leather Messenger Bag A948 Black Cross Body Travel Casual Flight BagMan's shoes Knit Breathable Sport shoes Running Sneaker Spring Fall Non-Slip Shock Absorption Casual Trainers Sport shoes Light shoes Camping Gym Run (color B, Size 40)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? PUMA Mens Sneakers Tsugi Shinsei Caviar FM Training shoesBernie Mev Cyrene Women's SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Palladium Womens Pallabosse Chelsea L Chukka BootMen's Highway Running Sneakers Fashion Sports Air Fitness Exercise Gym Jogging Walking shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).blueE LIVES MATTER Sports Running shoes Lightweight Sneakers Quick DryMUMUWU Men's Fashion Ankle Work Boot Casual Simple And Comfortable Classic Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot Winter Nunn Bush Men's Eddy OxfordBaffin Men's Trapper Canadian-Made Winter BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Jacata Men's Work Boots Water Resistant Boots Heavy Duty Natural Rubber Blend SolesXINBONG Men's Dress shoes Strap Buckle Round Toe Casual Business Oxfordsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Hey Dude Men's Wally Sox GreyMens Sandals, Men's Beach Slippers Genuine Lleather Non-Slip Sole Sandals with Buckle Decorati (color Red, Size 8.5 MUS) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCici shoes Mens Womens Winter Snow Boots Fur Warm Outdoor Water Resistant Slip On Casual Walking Camo Ankle shoesKMJBS-in Autumn Men Bullock shoes Stone Stripes Fringed shoes.Brown Thirty-Eight.MUMUWU Men's Driving Loafer Round Toe Flat Heel Solid color Splice Vamp Slip on shoes (color bluee, Size 10 D(M) US)Giles Jones Mens Combat Boots Autumn Winter High-top Anti-Slipping Motorcycle Boots At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, FINDYOU Men Genuine Leather Sandals Summer Wading Beach shoes Handmade Slippers Leather Casual shoes Flip Flops 3647,Brown,7Bettie Page Womens Bp250-abela Heeled Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (W&P Spring, summer and autumn running shoes super light comfort couple shoe breathable mesh men sneakers , b , 40).Wild Pair Women's Frazier Flat Dress SandalReebok Womens Cl Lthr W&w Sneaker However,Mountain Warehouse Aspect Mens IsoGrip Boots -Waterproof Hiking shoesMerrell Mens CEDRUS Ridge Congreen Black Slip-On I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Tkees Women's Graphics Flip Flop

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